Degeneration of the Idealism of the First Crusade into the Blatant Opportunism of the Later Crusades:

Pope Urban II knew that a crusade would serve to reunite Christianity, bolster the papacy, and maybe bring the East under his control. When the first Crusaders took Jerusalem in 1099, they massacred the population regardless of whether they were Muslims, Jews or Christians. The People's Crusade was really part of the First Crusade. The peasant population that formed the basis of People's Crusade had been afflicted by drought, famine, and plague for many years before 1096, and some of them seem to have thought of the crusade as an escape from these hardships. The German Crusade of 1096 is the part of the First Crusade in which peasant crusaders, mostly from Germany, attacked European Jews. Many people wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home. It is also likely that the crusaders were motivated by a need for money. The only evidence here for idealism is among the authorities and religious leaders who attempted to shelter their Jewish subjects.

Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II


Important aspects of the Code of Chivalry

The Code of Chivalry was the honor code of a knight. There were approximately seven main/ important aspects to the Code of Chivalry. These seven were Faith, Humility, Loyalty, Courtesy, Courage, justice, and Honor. Another aspect of the code was great gallantry towards women because a knight was taught to always taught to have great respect for all women. Knights also live by many other commandments such as, live to serve King and Country, never attack an unarmed foe, avoid lying, if they were to die, they were to die with honor, and many other commandments.




Things brought back to Europe with returning Crusaders from the Middle East.

Many things were brought back to Europe with the crusaders. Some main things they brought back and introduced to europe were catapults, gunpowder, better medical knowledge, pointed acrhes, windmills, Wheel barrows etc...They also brought new domesticated animals such as donkeys, carrier pigeons, and faster horses. New items also began being imported from the middle east such as carpets, silk, cotton, citrus fruits, and sugar and sweets.


Catapult
Catapult
Pointed Arches
Pointed Arches
Carrier Pigeon
Carrier Pigeon
Silk
Silk


Knights
Most early knights were not much more than hired "boys" who performed military service and took oaths of loyalty to any well-to-do nobleman or warlord offering the most promise of money or war booty. Training to become a knight usually started at a young age. Most of the potential knights were sent to stay with a relative or lord who had the resources to train the young boy on how to use weapons and most importantly, the skills to handle a horse in combat. Training was usually completed once he reached 'fighting age' which was between 16-20 years old. Then a nice ceremony was arranged for the boy to become a full knight, only the richest nobles or a king could afford to "knight" someone. Once becoming a knight, he must serve his lord and offer military service some military duties he must perform would be castle guard, serving as the lord's "bodyguard", and participating in battle. Some armor that the knights would wear would consist of chainmill, coif or leggings, shield, and a helmet, later on in the middle ages the development of the full suit of plate armor came on the scence. Weapons that Knights used in combat were basically the Sword which was the primary and most effective weapon. Most of the swords were double sided, featured a crossguard, hilt and pommel. Other weapons the Knight would use would be the lance which was a long type of sword made of wood with a metal tip, axe, morningstar, and a war hammer.

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The First Crusade

The First Crusade played a important role part in Medieval England. This crusade was an attempt to re-capture Jerusalem. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Muslims in 1076 Christians faced a very hard time. It was very dangerous for any Christian who would come into Jerusalem. In 1095 a war was declared and anyone who volunteered to fight against the Muslims would wear a red cross on there tunics. This war became known as the "Holy War". There were many true Christians who volunteered. They were told by there Pope that because they were fighting to get Jerusalem back and there beliefs that if they died they would go straight to heaven. Others fought because they thought they would get rich because they thought wealth existed in Jerusalem. The first Crusade had a very difficult journey getting to the Middle East. They could not use the Mediterranean Sea because they did not control ports of the Middle east, therefore they had to cross land. The traveled from France through Italy, then Eastern Europe and then through what is now Turkey. Disease became a really quick factor on another reason it took so long. Bad hi-gene, sewage, and dirty water were all factors of disease. The first target of the Crusaders was the important city of Nicea. This was successful and wasn't to big of a problem to defeat. The next target was Anitoch which was a strongly protected Turkish City. It took 7 months for this city to fall. The next place to take over was Jerusalem. The attack and capture of Jerusalem took place in the summer of 1099. Jerusalem was well defended with high walls all around it. The first attack was not successful because of lack of material to fight with. Once the Crusaders managed to get over the walls the Muslims then began to retreat. After the attack 70,000 people were killed and the Crusaders had taken all treasure they could. After the success of the Crusaders the Kingdom of Jerusalem was created and they elected Godfrey of Bouillon as there king. This would not be the last Crusade do to Christians wanting all Muslims off the "Holy Land".

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Group Name – The Long Bows

Your topic is the Crusades, Knights and the Code of Chivalry

Describe the degeneration of the idealism of the First Crusade into the blatant opportunism of the later crusades. What specific advances did the returning crusaders bring back to England with them? What were some of the important aspects of the code of chivalry? What was the position of the Knight in En.glish Medieval society? The Long Bows